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Maternal Depression Course 3F - Quiz



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Low-income mothers of young children experience no greater risk of depression than do mothers in other economic circumstances.
True False
Which of the following statements appears in this lesson?
African American women have very high rates of depression;
Rates of depression among Latino women vary from high to very low;
Rates of depression in Latina adolescents are uniformly high.
All of these.
None of these.
Research also suggests that . . .
poverty is a more powerful predictor of depression than ethnicity.
for poor women, rates of depression are high regardless of ethnicity.
poverty trumps race as a factor in maternal depression.
All of the above
None of the above
Disproportionately, depression impacts low-income parents. Their depression is embedded in .....
the hardships associated with not having enough money
substance abuse
domestic violence
prior trauma
all of the above
The negative effects of maternal depression on children’s health and development can start during pregnancy.
True False
In a study of young children being expelled from child care centers, depressed caregivers were _________________ to expel children than non-depressed caregivers.
more likely
no more likely
about equally likely
Research has verified that Maternal Depression is linked to a reduction in young children’s behavioral, cognitive, social, and emotional functioning.
True False
In low income communities, there is a cumulative impact of depression in combination with other stress factors which include
hardships associated with poverty
substance abuse
prior trauma
domestic violence
all of the above
In the 18 City Study, children of mothers who had three of these risk factors were two to three times more likely to be aggressive, anxious, depressed, and hyperactive, when compared to children whose mothers had none of these risk factors.
True False
In the 18-city study highlighted in this course, fathers had _________________ than did the mothers.
higher rates of major depression and anxiety disorder, and lower rates of substance abuse (including smoking, binge drinking and illicit drug use).
lower rates of major depression and anxiety disorder, but higher rates of substance abuse (including smoking, binge drinking and illicit drug use)
The rates of grandparents being depressed are comparable to those of mothers.
True False
In general, maternal depression is responsive to combinations of traditional treatments such as cognitive therapy and medication. However, with low income populations:
Traditional treatment strategies need to be adapted.
More emphasis is needed on engagement strategies.
Using the phone may be better than face-to-face interventions,
All of the above
Some of the factors that prevent low income mothers from seeking treatment for depression are these:
they think how they feel is just “the way it is;” given the reality of their life situations.
they are leery of the stigma involved in admitting they have a problem.
There is great distrust of mental health agencies, including community mental health centers.
Many are reluctant to take medications because they fear what the side effects will do to their parenting.
All of the above
Some adaptations of traditional treatment for Maternal Depression include
addressing trauma
emphasizing the legal risks associated with not getting treatment
using outreach and strengthening the focus on educational and support approaches
All of the above
Only the first and third options above
Research has demonstrated that trusting relationships with providers who understand their daily life and cultural realities are the key to low income women following through with treatment.
True False
One deterrent to treatment is the concern about the use of medications as the treatment of choice in primary health care and mental health settings.
True False
Low income women are NO MORE LIKELY to be given older medications than non-poor women.
True False
Early childhood programs which support the parents ....
may also prevent maternal depression
reduce the need for more formal treatment in some families
save 60% of potential treatment costs born by the taxpayer
All of these
Only the first and second options above
This lesson tells us that traditional interventions for depression address only the 'adult' - and
do not address the adult as a parent
do not actively include strategies to prevent or repair damage to the early parent-child relationship.
Both of the above
The 4 most common screening tools used to detect maternal depression are the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Postpartum Depression Screen (PPDS), the Rorschach inkblot test, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale (CES-D).
True False
Studies have found that a two-question paper-based screen, followed by a brief discussion with the mother by a pediatrician, was both feasible and effective in identifying women who needed follow-ups or referrals.
True False
In fact, one of the studies examined the difference between a verbal interview and a paper form, and the paper screen was found to be _________________ the verbal interview in identifying Maternal Depression.
just as effective as
far more effective than
almost as effective as
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends a simple two question screen for all pregnant women, with further screening for those women whose answers indicate possible depression. Which two questions for pregnant woment are cited in this empirically validated research paper?
Over the past two weeks, have you felt little interest or pleasure in doing things?
Over the past two weeks, have you had thoughts of hurting yourself or someone else?
Over the past two weeks, have you ever felt down, depressed, or hopeless?
Options 1 and 2 above
Options 1 and 3 above
In terms of actual interventions once depression is identifieed, the interventions typically involve a focus on improved parent-child relationships and parenting practices.
True False
Home-visiting programs represent an important, but underutilized opportunity to prevent and address maternal depression and its consequences for young children.
True False
This study tells us that depressed parents participating in Early Head Start were more likely than the control group to ....
improve their parenting practices and have more positive parent-child interactions
use less harsh discipline practices
have children who were less aggressive or negative when interacting with peers
all of the above
only the first and third options
Other successful programs include ___________
Peer-to-peer SUPPORT RECOVERY groups for depressed women in low-income communities, frequently called Sister Circles.
One-to-one therapy programs which emphasize 'TALK THERAPY' and 'CONFRONTATION' of risk behaviors, frequently called Get It Right.
Both of the above
It is important to implement strategies which will ensure culturally and linguistically sensitive instructions to parents.
True False
In Maternal Depression programs, it is important to ....
promote public awareness campaigns and educational materials that show the links between early school success and addressing maternal depression
encourage community treatment providers and local and state policy makers to work on DIFFERENT aspects in planning so that they do not confuse each other
strengthen community capacity to address fathers as well as mothers in terms of depression
all of the above
only the first and third options
In New York City, active older community members are recruited to provide direct services to depressed parents because they are uniquely equipped to understand the issues of racism, cultural-gender roles, and the stresses of daily lives. These community workers are called
The Gray Angels
The Health Workers
The Inner City Partners


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